They are hidden in floors, walls or ceilings and distribute the heat evenly in the room.
With their “carbon nanotube” panel heating system, thermofer has developed one novel technology. At the heart of the low temperature panel heating system is the heating element “MESH”. This is a glass fire net, which is about 1.5 mm thin, that is coated with electro conductive carbon nanotubes as well as an insulating and stabilising material. As required, the heating element can be integrated close to the surface in walls, floors, ceilings or modular system elements.
The overall structure of a top layer with heating fabric including a vapour diffusible insulation fleece usually is 10 to 20 mm, dependent on application and final coating. The panel heating system disappears underneath plaster, tiles, floor coverings and so forth and thus does not disturb the room structure.
How does the panel heating work? Copper threads are woven into the glass fire net at regular intervals. If a voltage source is connected to it, electricity flows through the net and warms it up extensively. Plastered into a wall layer close to the surface, the warmth is transported very quickly to the wall surface and is then emitted into the room as predominantly thermal radiation. In other words, as electromagnetic waves that transport energy and aren’t visible to the human eye – comparable with the effect of sun rays. When these waves hit solid objects, such as persons, walls or furniture, the energy is transformed into warmth. The bodies in the room absorb the thermal radiation and partially pass it on afterwards. In this way, a mutual and even heat exchange takes place that turns furniture, people and walls into secondary heat sources. The result is a much higher thermal cosiness compared to conventional heating systems.
Convection heaters that are operated with fossil fuels such as coal, gas or oil mainly heat up the air. This causes air circulation through which hot air rises to the ceiling where it cools off again and then continuously circulates in the room. This can lead to dust turbulence, dry room air, mould formation and an indoor climate that is perceived as unpleasant. Next to the aspect of a higher thermal cosiness, the low-temperature panel heating system scores with further diverse advantages – i.e. a high energy efficiency. Though the extensive heat distribution, the system can work with low temperatures so that losses to the outside are minimal. Furthermore, the energy that is supplied by the electricity producers and has to be paid by the client – the so-called end-energy – is transformed into nearly 100% warmth, which is not possible with conventional heating systems. Conventional radiators have to be strongly heated to warm up larger rooms with their comparatively smaller surface. For this purpose, flow temperatures of up to 60 °C are required.
What is more, it takes relatively long until the warmth is distributed throughout the room. The low-temperature panel heating system, on the other hand, heats up significantly faster – within a few minutes – due to the near surface integration of the heating element as well as the use of a thin and highly effective insulation layer. The heat emission takes place on account of the low surface temperature by 65 to 79 percent thermal radiation and 30 to 35 percent convective heat dissipation. Because of the low operating temperature and the quick heating time, significant savings in heating costs and total cost of ownership are possible. In addition, the resulting lower energy consumption and minimised CO 2 emissions contribute towards the protection of the environment.
A further plus point: The system principle allows the integration of the heating into existing and future plant engineering. The inclusion of regenerative energy producers such as photovoltaics, small wind turbines, etc. is as possible as the connection to bus systems. With a large-scale under-floor heater, a small leakage for example can already lead to a significant impairment or the failure of the entire heating system. Often this is connected to water damage including very extensive repairs. This is not possible with the thermofer system since no liquids are used. Due to the robust design and the particularly close-meshed net structure of the heating fabric, subsequent mounting of lamps, curtains, pictures, TV brackets and so on are no problem. Should the glass fire net be damaged by nails, wall plugs or screws, a repair is not necessary.
The functional capability of the system will not or is only in parts compromised. Flexible application possibilities : For maximum flexibility in room heating or use there are low-temperature panel heating systems in different versions. The basis for all heating systems, which can be combined with each other, is the heating fabric. On the one hand, there are panel heating systems for the fitted integration into the wall, ceiling and floor. These are suitable for the use in well-insulated new buildings but can also be retrofitted in un-insulated old constructions. The supply voltage is 42V AC and thus meets the requirements for electrical safety. The system is licensed as building product according to EN 13501-1:2010 with the fie performance class E.